The State of Qatar is situated halfway along the western coast of the Arabian Gulf. It is a Peninsula jutting northwards between latitudes: 24° 27° & 26° 10° north and longitudes 50° 45° & 51° 40° East. The total area of the country is 11,521 sqkm. Other than its common land borders with Saudi Arabia in the South and South West, Qatar borders on the waters of the Arabian Gulf on all other sides.
Qatar has a number of islands, the most important of which are Halul, Sharouh, Al-Ashat, Al-Safliyah, Al-Aliyah, and Ras Rukn. Qatar's Eastern and Western coastline is 700 km long, (approximately 23 % of the total Gulf coastline. The farthest two points in Qatar are 160 km apart, while the maximum width which roughly is in the middle of the peninsula is 80 km. Beaches and sand dunes are predominantly found along the eastern coast, especially at khor Al-Udeid and Mesaieed.
The shoreline of the mainland is a zigzag with many fiords and bays which are known locally as Khor(s). Among them there are Al Khawr, Khowr Ad Dhakhirah etc. There are many small capes (Ras in Arabic) which resulted from erosion such as Ras Laffan, Ras Abu Aboud, Ras Rukn, Ras Ushayrig, etc.
Qatar’s coastline is mostly flat. Reefs and shoals extend to as much as 48-80 km in some places. The coast, for the most part, is uninhabited extensive tracts of sand.
Populated coastal areas have groves of date palms. Doha is the Arabic term for a small circular bay, such as those found at Mesaideed , Ad Doha, Dohat El-Hussein, Dohat Zekrit, Salwa . . . etc. Qatar's topography is characterized by the existence of Khors and bays along the coastal line and dry basins and depressions known as "riyadh" in the North and central parts of the country. Al Majidah, Shahania and Sulimi are the most fertile riyadhs and as such are rich in vegetation. The South Eastern areas are barren sandy desert.